Fuel Saving Devices
This text combines an old look at thermodynamics with a new foundation. A New Perspective on Thermodynamics can be considered a new edition of P.G. Tait's book, which profoundly impacted generations of thermodynamicists. The book will present a historical perspective which unravels the current presentation of thermodynamics found in standard textbooks, and which emphasizes the fundamental role that Carnot played in the development of thermodynamics. Conceptual flaws in timely topics, such as endoreversible engines, finite-time thermodynamics, and single-molecule measurements which use equilibrium changes in the free energy to determine nonequilibrium work, are highlighted.
The book introduces a new outlook on thermodynamics, showing that it was not formulated as a series of laws, like those of Newton, but, rather, as the desire to account for the effects of heat on otherwise mechanical systems, and the possible overlap of the interpretations of first and second laws. In fact, the historical development shows that there is no clear-cut distinction between the first and second laws; irreversibility can be characterized by an increase in entropy or a diminution in the internal energy. Notwithstanding this, it is Clausius's approach which is almost universally adhered to. An approach to the development of non-Carnot efficiencies is given, and how it can be used in modern contexts. Critiques are given on finite-time thermodynamics, non-Carnot cycles, single molecule experiments that equate non-equilibrium work with equilibrium free energy chains.
The behaviour of market prices is a fascinating subject for researchers. Opinions vary substantially. from the view that prices accurately and quickly reflect relevant information to the other extreme that prices are not rationally determined and are hence to some degree predictable. This diversity of belief about the efficiency of markets is reflected in these proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "A reappraisal of the efficiency of financial markets". The thirty-one workshop papers cover stock. currency and commodity markets. We are pleased to have contributions on markets in eleven NATO countries: Belgium. Canada. Denmark. France. Germany. Greece. Italy. the Netherlands. Portugal. the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop papers thus provide a wide-ranging account of contemporary research into financial markets worldwide. The workshop was held at the Hotel do Mar. Sesimbra. Portugal from April 11 th to April 15th. 1988. We record our gratitude to Jose Cabral for ensuring the smooth progress of the workshop. The generous financial assistance of NATO was supplemented by contributions from: The Chicago Board of Trade. Alianca Seguradora. Banco Comercial Portugues. Fundacao Luso-Americana Para 0 Desenvolvimento. Junta Nacional de Investigacao Cientifica e Tecnologica. We speak for all the workshop participants in expressing our thanks to all our sponsors. Rui M. Campos Guimaraes. University of Porto.
Fuel Saving Devices Articles
Fuel Saving Devices Books
Fuel Saving Devices