Fuel Saving Devices
Much of the world’s petroleum is located on continental margins, and any further development of these offshore deposits would be impossible without new technologies and new methods contained in this volume. Written by some of the world’s foremost authorities on oil and gas, this volume explains for the practicing engineer and the engineering student some of the most important and cutting-edge techniques for developing offshore fields on continental margins.
We both found ourselves working on water-soluble polymers for oil recovery in the early 1980' s. Our previ ous backgrounds i nvo 1 ved the synthesi sand characteri zati on of hydrocarbon polymers for everythi ng from elastomers to plastics. As such, we were largely unprepared for the special difficulties associated with water soluble polymers in genera 1, and thei ruse in enhanced oi 1 recovery (EOR) , in parti cul ar. Oil patch applications have a jargon and technical heritage quite apart from that usually experienced by traditional polymer scientists. At that time, no books were available to help us "get up to speed" in the polymers for oil recovery field. Since then, there have been a number of symposia on this topic, but still few books, especially from the polymer (rather than the field-applications) perspective. Synthetic water soluble/swellable polymers have commercial importance in such application as water treatment, cosmetics, and foods. Yet, these polymers have not received the scientific/technological attention they deserve. The application of water soluble polymers to oil recovery has, in fact, highlighted the need for new water based materials, and a fundamental understanding of their structure and use. Interest has been spurred not only for the potenti a 1 economi c credi ts from enhanced oi 1 recovery and an augmented polymers business, but also by the challenge of designing water soluble polymers for harsh environments.
Petroleum taxation is the universal instrument through which governments seek to determine the crucial balance between the financial interests of the oil companies and the owners of the resource. This book addresses how governments have and continue to approach this problem, the impacts of different policy choices and how these are being adapted to changing business conditions. Carole Nakhle presents the reader with an illuminating and robust analysis of the entire taxation story, from the basic theoretical considerations through to advanced computations applied to various tax regimes.
Nakhle's main argument is that petroleum taxation is a subject of complexity, variety and subject to continued evolution, being surrounded and shaped by multifaceted geological, technical and market factors together with unpredictable political influences. The author challenges the assumption that perfect models of petroleum taxation can be designed and applied to countries and circumstances around the world, arguing that an ideal structure exists only in theory but can be nonetheless a useful benchmark against which to test proposed fiscal systems.
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Fuel Saving Devices