This book provides an important link between the theoretical knowledge in the field of non-linier physics and practical application problems in microelectronics. It delivers different levels of understanding of the physical phenomena that play a critical role in limitation of the semiconductor device capabilities, physical safe operating area limitation, and different scenarios of catastrophic failures in semiconductor devices. The book focuses on power semiconductor devices and self-triggering pulsed power devices for ESD protection clamps. The purpose of the book is popularization of the physical approach for reliability assurance. Another unique aspect of the book is the role of local structural defects, their mathematical description, and their impact on the reliability of the semiconductor devices.
One of the major challenges the book covers is the gap in understanding of major physical regularities between the theoretical knowledge in the field of non-linier phenomena in semiconductors and the reliability and ESD protection problems in process and device development, circuit design, TCAD, and applications.
Since the beginning of semiconductor era in microelectronics the methodology of reliability assessment became a well established area. In most cases the reliability assessment involves statistical methods for safe operating area and long term re- ability parameters at the development of semiconductor processes, components and systems. At the same time in case of catastrophic failures at any development phase the major practical method is failure analysis (FA). However FA is mainly dealing with detection of consequences of some irreversible event that already happened. This book is focused on the most important and the less summarized reliability aspects. Among them: catastrophic failures, impact of local structural inhomo- neities, major principles of physical limitation of safe-operating area (SOA), physical mechanisms of the current instability, filamentation and conductivity modulation in particular device types and architectures. Specifically, the similar principles and regularities are discussed for elect- static discharge (ESD) protection devices, treating them as a particular case of pulsed power devices. Thus both the most intriguing applications and reliability problems in case of the discrete and the integrated components are covered in this book.
Compound semiconductors impact our lives in countless ways, with applications in photovoltaics, wireless and optical telecommunication, high-power electronics, and 'green' energy. Recent areas of progress include sensing devices in biological and chemical environments, high-efficiency power devices, and photon-counting detectors. Although these materials offer significant advantages, including bandgap tailorability, high efficiency, high-temperature operation, and radiation tolerance, much work needs to be done to realize their full potential. This symposium proceedings volume represents recent advances in compound semiconductors for electronics, detection, and processing. It brought together researchers and engineers working on both fundamental materials research and device-related materials engineering, in order to address current problems and identify next-generation applications. This selection of papers demonstrates the cross-fertilization of ideas that will drive the successful adoption of these materials for new applications.
Secure Electronic Voting is an edited volume, which includes chapters authored by leading experts in the field of security and voting systems. The chapters identify and describe the given capabilities and the strong limitations, as well as the current trends and future perspectives of electronic voting technologies, with emphasis in security and privacy. Secure Electronic Voting includes state-of-the-art material on existing and emerging electronic and Internet voting technologies, which may eventually lead to the development of adequately secure e-voting systems. This book also includes an overview of the legal framework with respect to voting, a description of the user requirements for the development of a secure e-voting system, and a discussion on the relevant technical and social concerns. Secure Electronic Voting includes, also, three case studies on the use and evaluation of e-voting systems in three different real world environments.
In this book, the problem of electron and hole transport is approached from the point of view that a coherent and consistent physical theory can be constructed for transport phenomena. Along the road readers will visit some exciting citadels in theoretical physics as the authors guide them through the strong and weak aspects of the various theoretical constructions. Our goal is to make clear the mutual coherence and to put each theoretical model in an appropriate perspective. The mere fact that so many partial solutions have been proposed to describe transport, be it in condensed matter, fluids, or gases, illustrates that we are entering a world of physics with a rich variety of phenomena. Theoretical physics always seeks to provide a unifying picture. By presenting this tour of many very inventive attempts to build such a picture, it is hoped that the reader will be inspired and encouraged to help find the unifying principle behind the many faces of transport.
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