Since the beginning of semiconductor era in microelectronics the methodology of reliability assessment became a well established area. In most cases the reliability assessment involves statistical methods for safe operating area and long term re- ability parameters at the development of semiconductor processes, components and systems. At the same time in case of catastrophic failures at any development phase the major practical method is failure analysis (FA). However FA is mainly dealing with detection of consequences of some irreversible event that already happened. This book is focused on the most important and the less summarized reliability aspects. Among them: catastrophic failures, impact of local structural inhomo- neities, major principles of physical limitation of safe-operating area (SOA), physical mechanisms of the current instability, filamentation and conductivity modulation in particular device types and architectures. Specifically, the similar principles and regularities are discussed for elect- static discharge (ESD) protection devices, treating them as a particular case of pulsed power devices. Thus both the most intriguing applications and reliability problems in case of the discrete and the integrated components are covered in this book.
Explore the potential for nanotechnologies to transform future mobile and Internet communications. Based on a research collaboration between Nokia, Helsinki University of Technology, and the University of Cambridge, here leading researchers review the current state-of-the art and future prospects for: * Novel multifunctional materials, dirt repellent, self-healing surface materials, and lightweight structural materials capable of adapting their shape * Portable energy storage using supercapacitor-battery hybrids based on new materials including carbon nanohorns and porous electrodes, fuel cell technologies, energy harvesting and more efficient solar cells * Electronics and computing advances reaching beyond IC scaling limits, new computing approaches and architectures, embedded intelligence and future memory technologies. * Nanoscale transducers for mechanical, optical and chemical sensing, sensor signal processing, and nanoscale actuation * Nanoelectronics to create ultrafast and adaptive electronics for future radio technologies * Flat panel displays with greater robustness, improved resolution, brightness and contrast, and mechanical flexibility * Manufacturing and innovation processes, plus commercialization of nanotechnologies.
Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) demonstrate simplicity of their excitation and receipt, as well as their availability to all propagation ways of signal branching and processing. SAW devices are divided into several main classes: filters for signal processing at intermediate frequencies, delay lines, resonators, filters with low losses for the input circuits of receiver, and antenna duplexers for the connected receivers. The SAW devices are not only able to conduct an effective signal processing, but also serve as a basis for multi-subsystems (matched filtering, signal processing, real-time Fourier transform processors, etc.). Additionally, SAW filters help scientists to realise the wide variety of frequency characteristics. Besides their unique electrical characteristics, SAW devices favorably differ from their analogs in small size, mechanical strength and high reliability, due to the quality of raw materials and their processing. The use of the photolithography and the achievements of group microelectronic technology in their production allow a researcher to achieve good reproducibility of parameters at relatively low cost. In addition, currently SAW devices are widely used in various sensors based on the SAW radio frequency identification. This book presents an attempt to generalise a multi-year experience on R&D of SAW devices. It develops original approaches directed at discovering solutions of technical problems, as development of various SAW devices are patented in Russia. Moreover, the book presents some experimental and theoretical research results.
The world of microelectronics is filled with cusses measurement systems, manufacturing many success stories. From the use of semi- control techniques, test, diagnostics, and fail- ure analysis. It discusses methods for modeling conductors for powerful desktop computers to their use in maintaining optimum engine per- and reducing defects, and for preventing de- formance in modem automobiles, they have fects in the first place. The approach described, clearly improved our daily lives. The broad while geared to the microelectronics world, has useability of the technology is enabled, how- applicability to any manufacturing process of similar complexity. The authors comprise some ever, only by the progress made in reducing their cost and improving their reliability. De- of the best scientific minds in the world, and fect reduction receives a significant focus in our are practitioners of the art. The information modem manufacturing world, and high-quality captured here is world class. I know you will diagnostics is the key step in that process. find the material to be an excellent reference in of product failures enables step func- Analysis your application. tion improvements in yield and reliability. which works to reduce cost and open up new Dr. Paul R. Low applications and technologies. IBM Vice President and This book describes the process ofdefect re- of Technology Products General Manager duction in the microelectronics world.
''This work is outstanding....The charm of the work lies herein, that it presents in a coherent fashion a great deal of valuable material. I strongly recommend it in particular to graduate students in experimental semiconductor physics.'' ---Contemporary Physics
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